Social Media is the New Smoking

In The Guardian yesterday, Sean Parker, one of the founders of Facebook, has said that they knew they were creating something which could explore the “…vulnerability in human psychology”, when they were constructing how to make Facebook more appealing.

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Parker goes on to say how they exploited customers by using a ‘dopamine effect’. According to Science News for Students:

Dopamine also helps with reinforcement — motivating an animal to do something again and again. Dopamine is what prompts a lab animal, for instance, to repeatedly press a lever to get tasty pellets of food. And it’s part of why humans seek out another slice of pizza. Reward and reinforcement help us learn where to find important things such as food or water, so that we can go back for more. Dopamine even affects moods. Things that are rewarding tend to make us feel pretty good.

And Psychology Today said in in 2012:

Of course, sad stories or trying moments are shared too, but the goal there is to get viewers to secrete oxytocin, the “love hormone,” and elicit their help. Feeling supported during times of crisis helps mitigate the pain caused by the release of cortisol, the stress hormone. Facebook fools our brain into believing that loved ones surround us, which historically was essential to our survival. The human brain, because it evolved thousands of years before photography, fails on many levels to recognize the difference between pictures and people.

The Guardian goes on to say:

He explained that when Facebook was being developed the objective was: “How do we consume as much of your time and conscious attention as possible?” It was this mindset that led to the creation of features such as the “like” button that would give users “a little dopamine hit” to encourage them to upload more content.

“It’s a social-validation feedback loop … exactly the kind of thing that a hacker like myself would come up with, because you’re exploiting a vulnerability in human psychology.”

But what does all this mean for media students? Consider Parker’s quote of, “How do we consume as much of your time and conscious attention as possible?” It’s clear that the primary function of Facebook is business facing but that shouldn’t be a surprise to us. It’s the strange place of ‘cognitive dissonance’ in which we find ourselves. We know Facebook and other social media companies are based on an economic model and that they have no real obligation to make our lives better yet we somehow choose to forget all that and jump head first into the abyss. There are many reports of how social media is harmful to our mental health and yet we keep scrolling by, keep double-tapping for love and retweeting that hilarious meme.

It’s almost as if social media is the new smoking. We know it’s bad for our health but we choose not to think about it. We choose instead to keep puffing away, willingly harming our self-esteem, attention span and understanding of the world around us. Got a light?

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New York Times Says Newspapers Still Relevant

News Media

In a recent article in the New York Times it is suggested that the print press are still relevant, despite falling circulation. In fact, they go as far to say that ‘Brexit’ was largely down to the influence of British tabloids. Read the full article below.

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This is a great piece of research which argues against the notion that online media is replacing ‘old’ or ‘slow’ media.

Gender Trouble – Judith Butler

One of the theorists we study for our exam is Judith Butler. 

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This website gives a great introduction to Butler’s theories on gender and sexuality. Click the image below:

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Van Zoonen: Feminist Perspectives in Media

Now that we have started to understand how ideology works we now need to extend our knowledge to other critical media theories. One of the theorists the Specification asks us to look at is the concept of patriachy by Liesbet van Zoonen.

You can read her original essay, Feminist Perspectives in Media, here: Zoonen_Liesbet_van_-_Feminist_Perspectives

According to Van Zoonen the media represent women with stereotypical images and this behaviour reinforces ideological concept of what it means to be a woman. The media does this because they believe it reflects dominant social values (dominant ideology) and male producers are influenced by this. All of this contributes to the concept of a patriarchal society. 

Let’s explore the different types of feminism.

Liberal Feminism

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Radical Feminism

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Socialist Feminism

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What are the Waves of Feminism?

Check this site for a brief introduction to the waves of feminism. It outlines the Three Waves. 

But wait, there’s now a FOURTH WAVE?

This is a pretty good discussion of the so-called Fourth Wave. It’s all about the use of online activism and something called, intersectionality.

Intersectionality

Wikipedia offers a really good introduction:

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Later on in the week we will be looking at Judith Butler and her theories of gender. So, if you want to get ahead then start research in your Private Study time.

The purpose of doing all this is so we can analyse news media with depth and sophistication and offer a detailed exploration of how news media portray and represent ideas, values and beliefs.

Podcast: Jack Brown on Maths

In this episode I have coffee with award-winning maths teacher, Jack Brown. It’s a really fascinating insight into the mysterious mind of a maths teacher. By the way, you can find his amazing YouTube Channel here.

Cats on a Treadmill

Media in the Online Age

Facebook and online media in general often claims that thanks to the World Wide Web we are connecting with each other and making greater communities. However, more and more research is suggesting that in fact the opposite is happening. Companies like Facebook are actually atomising society and encouraging an ‘Echo Chamber’ effect on our fundamental ideas, values and beliefs.

In a recent article on Tech Crunch, Jon Evans argues that

At Facebook’s scale, behavioral targeting doesn’t just reflect our behavior, it actually influences it. Over time, a service which was supposed to connect humanity is actually partitioning us into fractal disconnected bubbles.

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A New Statesman article outlines how the Echo Chamber is linked to the recent decision for Britain to leave the European Union:

Social networks – and echo chambers specifically – might be partly to blame. A study carried out last year, entitled “The spreading of misinformation online”, revealed their concerning effects. According to Michela del Vicario, a co-author of the study, echo chambers are “closed environments, inside of which users are not reached by contrasting information”.

And The Independent even claim that social media Echo Chambers are in part to blame for the rise of Donald Trump’s success in the United States of America:

Instead of trying to reach out and understand why people felt moved to vote for Trump, too many admonished them. We retreated to our echo chambers, where we bellow our opinions at people who are already in agreement and enjoy having them repeated back to us. Our prismatic view of public opinion through tailored social media feeds not only hid from us the confused, angry people we needed to try and reason with, but it gave us a warped view of their motives. And this is where it gets particularly scary: Trump voters are fully aware he is sexist and xenophobic, they just don’t care.

But what is the answer? Should we all leave Facebook and the Internet for good?

Andrew Keen argues that the Internet is a failed experiment. That the promise of the World Wide Web has not been fulfilled. So, perhaps we shouldn’t abandon it completely but if research is telling us that social media like Facebook, Instagram and Twitter are actually bad for our mental health then surely we should no longer use them?

We can argue that the Internet (and by extension your own social media) is like a mirror. If an idiot looks into it then it is an idiot who peers back. If you redesign how you use social media and the Internet then things can change. One of the most difficult things to accomplish is to navigate through the noise of the Internet. To look past the bigotry, the lies, the fake news and even the cats on a treadmill. To look past all that and to seek out only what makes us better is more  difficult than we think and this, I would argue, is because when it really comes to it, deep down, we don’t care.

It appears that Neil Postman was right when he wrote in his book, Amusing Ourselves to Death:

What Orwell feared were those who would ban books. What Huxley feared was that there would be no reason to ban a book, for there would be no one who wanted to read one. Orwell feared those who would deprive us of information. Huxley feared those who would give us so much that we would be reduced to passivity and egoism. Orwell feared that the truth would be concealed from us. Huxley feared the truth would be drowned in a sea of irrelevance. Orwell feared we would become a captive culture. Huxley feared we would become a trivial culture, preoccupied with some equivalent of the feelies, the orgy porgy, and the centrifugal bumblepuppy.

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And so there it is.

As Adam Curtis says, Oh Dear.

The Internet’s Own Boy

Media in the Online Age

Check out this documentary on Netflix called, The Internet’s Own Boy – the Story of Aaron Swartz. 

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From Wikipedia:

Aaron Hillel Swartz (November 8, 1986 – January 11, 2013) was an American computer programmer, entrepreneur, writer, political organizer, and Internet hacktivist. He was involved in the development of the web feed format RSS[3] and the Markdown publishing format,[4] the organization Creative Commons,[5] the website framework web.py,[6] and the social news site Reddit, in which he became a partner after its merger with his company, Infogami.[i]